Assessment and feedback - Fleksibel utdanning Norge

Assessment and feedback are important to promote learning and should give students an overview of where they are in their learning process, where they are going and what they should do to progress.

All forms of individual production are basically suitable for assessment, and much can be submitted electronically: project reports, essays, discussions, videos and, in practice, all types of texts, including multimodal ones. Through the use of video, students also provide documentation of artistic and practical processes and products or reflection on their own learning. Group work may also be subject to assessment.

Feedback may be given both orally and in writing.

  • Oral feedback can be given directly when the student, for example, gives a presentation or submits a physical product or work.
  • Written feedback is often provided through annotation and comments in a document.
  • Many learning platforms can include the possibility of oral feedback in an audio or video file. Many students find this more personal than written feedback. Many tutors also find that oral feedback is labour-saving.

Portfolio assessment

A portfolio assessment is an ongoing body of work on the production, assessment and improvement of, for example, texts, videos or other products.

Dette er en pedagogisk metode som kombinerer både underveis- og This is a method that combines both formative and final assessment. The educational arguments for portfolio assessment are that the method increases in-depth learning through greater interaction between students and tutor over time, often over the course of a whole semester. The method combines the teaching method and form of assessment, which in turn means that portfolio assessment impacts teaching practice. Virtually all forms of assessment and types of work can be included in a portfolio assessment. A main point is that the students receive and give feedback on their work during the process and can improve it, while the portfolio as a whole can be assessed. Students can receive feedback along the way, either from tutors or fellow students, or give themselves feedback in the form of e.g. a reflection paper. (36)

Useful to consider when planning a portfolio assessment (37):

  • What the portfolio should contain and what should be included in the basis for assessment.
  • The nature and scope of each piece of work.
  • The sequence in which the work is to be submitted, or, if applicable, whether the students can decide for themselves.
  • Form and scope of supervision.
  • The submission deadline for each individual assignment.
  • How the work is to be submitted and carried out, including whether one or more assignments shall be carried out by several students jointly.
  • How to decide which assignments to include if only selected works are to form the basis for the grade.
  • What criteria apply to the assessment of the work included in the basis for assessment and of the portfolio as a whole.

Online tests and quizzes – asynchronous and flexible

The learning platforms usually have functions for creating self-correcting tests. There are also many browser and app-based tools. Some reasons to create self-correcting tests online follow below:

  • The students can receive immediate feedback.
  • There are many adaptation possibilities (time, place, scope, degree of formalisation).
  • It frees up the tutor’s time.
  • Tests can be used as a learning resource.
  • Tests can be used as small breaks to summarise or reflect in lecture-based teaching.
  • Tests can be created to activate the students’ understanding.
  • Tests can be repeated as many times as the student wishes.

Advice and tips for online tests:

  • Both tutors and students can work together to create good assignments for a common question bank (producing and assessing the quality of questions is a learning activity in itself).
  • One way to increase learning outcomes may be to create feedback that refers students back to the curriculum, and let them take the tests several times.
  • Good self-correcting tests can form the basis for self-assessment: Why did I respond the way I did?
  • Try out the test beforehand; both the technical setup and the quality of questions, feedback and hints.

Peer assessment

Peer assessment is also called peer review. In Part 1, we wrote a little about peer assessment and feedback literacy. Peer assessment enables students to develop feedback literacy.

It is important to talk to the students about why peer assessments are useful. A good class environment can help ensure that as many people as possible feel a mutual obligation to invest effort in the feedback. Time is scarce for most people taking flexible programmes and courses. They must feel that the exercises are useful. They must do enough assessments to make them competent in the exercise, but not so many that they get bored of it.

Advice and tips for peer assessment:

  • Talk to the students about why giving and receiving feedback from fellow students is useful
  • Good assessment criteria help students feel more confident about what to look for, and enable them to provide higher quality feedback.
  • The assessment criteria may well be developed jointly by the tutor and the students.
  • Give students examples of past feedback.
  • Students The TAG model:
    1) Tell something good: Say something positive about the product/process.
    2) Ask a question: Ask a constructive question about the product/process.
    3) Give a suggestion for improvement: suggest a change in the product/process.
    Peer assessment can be used formatively and in a process-oriented way to give the recipient a chance to improve before the final assessment.
  • Feedback literacy can also be practised informally and orally.
  • A more active approach to peer assessment is when the recipient is explicit about what they want feedback on.

Self-assessment

Facilitation to ensure that students take part in the assessment of their own work and reflect on their own learning is a requirement at e.g. upper secondary school level (38) and a good educational principle in all learning situations.

Self-assessment should not only have a retrospective element: What have I learnt? What did I do to get to where I am now?, but also forward-looking: What do I need to achieve the learning objective? What do I need to do specifically?

Both a learning log and reflection papers are examples of individual self-assessment. Discussions between students or with tutors about their own learning may also be useful in self-assessment work.

At the time of writing (autumn 2023), there is a lot of talk about how artificial intelligence (AI) and advanced language models (such as ChatGPT) will impact exam assignments and actual exams. At the same time, tutors are exploring how the new technology can be used as a learning partner and assessment assistant.

One of the challenges associated with asynchronous assessment activities is knowing that it is the students who have completed the assessment activity themselves and that they have only used the permitted aids.

Although the pace of development is rapid, experience of flexible forms of assessment from the technological developments of recent years may be useful.

Advice and tips on formal assessment without unwanted use of other sources:

  • Link the exam assignments directly to projects or practices the students have been involved in.
  • Combine written work with a short oral examination to substantiate that the students actually have the knowledge demonstrated in the texts.
  • Multimodal texts, such as digital storytelling or videos, are more difficult to create with artificial intelligence.
  • Let the students write or record their reflections on their own learning in relation to the learning outcome descriptors/competence aims and learning processes.
  • Create guidelines for the use of artificial intelligence and other sources together with the students, so that they know where the boundaries are.
  • Use synchronous forms of assessment such as oral exams.
  • Ask students to use references from the curriculum.

Fotnoter

  1. 36

    Dysthe, O. & Engelsen, K. S. (2011). Portfolio practices in higher education in Norway in an international perspective: Macro‐, meso‐and micro‐level influences. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education36(1), 63–79.

  2. 37

    The checkpoints are taken from the Regulations concerning admissions, studies, assessment and degrees at the University of Bergen, Section 6-2-5 On portfolio assessment https://lovdata.no/dokument/SF/forskrift/2012-02-16-872#KAPITTEL_6

  3. 38

    Regulations for the Education Act (2006) Section 3-10

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