Words and concepts used in this guide - Fleksibel utdanning Norge

Student: This guide uses the term ‘student’ for the person who is going to learn. This means that the term includes students, pupils, apprentices and course participants.

Digital channels: Digital channels is a common term for the tools that provide access to digital learning resources, digital teaching aids, digital meeting places and other forms of cooperation arenas.

Learning: Learning is often defined in brief as a relatively permanent change in understanding and behaviour resulting from previous experience. In education, tuition facilitates a learning process that is intended to result in a defined learning outcome.

Learning resources: We use the term learning resources for both paper-based and digital learning materials. Learning resources can be texts (written and multimedia), but also assignments and more advanced systems such as games and entire websites.

Learning outcomes: Learning outcomes are defined in the National Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (NQF) as follows: ‘What a person knows and is able to do as a result of a learning process.’ The learning outcomes are defined in terms of knowledge, skills and general competence. For programmes and courses in higher vocational and academic education, learning outcome descriptors are developed, defined by NOKUT as a way of communicating to students and potential students what they should be able to do on completion of the education. They are also intended to serve as a tool for subject tutors and examiners to determine what students should learn and on what basis they should be assessed. For primary and secondary education and training, the learning outcomes are specified in the competence aims defined for each subject. The competence aims are understood in light of the core elements and the other introductory texts in the curriculum. We have used learning outcome descriptors in this guide to define a broad understanding of competence aims, for example in the constructive alignment models.

Programmes and courses: The term programmes and courses generally applies to all types of study programmes, courses, subjects and modules.

Synchronous/asynchronous teaching: By synchronous teaching is meant teaching where the tutor and students communicate in real time in a face-to-face/online classroom. Asynchronous teaching is when the tutor and students do not communicate in real time. Elements of asynchronous teaching and learning methods occur in most courses and programmes, while some include flexible start-up and free progression and are thus 100 per cent asynchronous.

Tutors: The term tutors here covers various roles and functions in the work of facilitating and performing teaching of online studies, such as subject teachers, supervisors, course holders and educators.

Assessment: In line with established practice, the term ‘assessment’ is used to examine whether and to what extent the student achieves the expected learning outcomes. The term ‘evaluation’ is used when the quality of, for example, a teaching programme, study programme or institution is assessed.

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